République tchèque

The difficult times of Polish history



In spite of a valiant resistance, Charles the Xth Gustave of Sweden devastates Poland and his arable lands.


King Jean III Sobieski stops the Turkish invasion at the doors of Vienna, but he does not manage to improve the interior situation of the country. The country is weakened because of absence of clear and stable international policy, quarrels within the nobility and privileges granted to the landowners.

Beginning of the XVIIIth century

Disorders, anarchy and civil wars strike Poland, which fall under the influence of its neighbors.


First division of Poland by Prussia, Austria and Russia.


Second division of Poland between Russia and Prussia.


Third division of the country: Poland disappears from the map of Europe. Part of its population chooses the exile through Europe.


Owing to the bravoure of the Polish foreign legions, Napoleon the 1st creates the Great-Duchy of Warsaw.


Warsaw falls under the Russian domination with the defeat of Napoleon, but it obtains with the Congress of Vienna a relative autonomy: "Poland of the Congress", whose sovereign is the Tsar of Russia.


A strong insurrection is violently repressed and involves the suspension of "the Poland of the Congress". New insurrections rise again in 1846, 1863 and 1865.


The "Russianization" is launched with the purpose of destroying the Polish language and culture. Prussia pursues the same goals, on the contrary to Austria which is more tolerant.


Poland is the theatre of the main battles in the East European front, where the Poles must fight between themselves and in a war which is not theirs.


Poland recovers its independence after the defeat of the central Empires.

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