République tchèque

Dates and key characters of Polish ancient history


Around 960

Miesko the 1st establishes the first Polane Kingdom around Gniezno and Poznan.


In order to avoid an invasion of the Germanic armies of the Roman Empire, Miesko the 1st marries the princess of Bohemia and converts to Christianity.



Boleslas Chrobry (the Valiant), from the dynasty of Piast, obtains from the Pope the royal crown, which marks the birth of the Polish State.


Period of disintegration and reunification marked by the dynastic fights, the Tatar invasions and the efforts of the Church to maintain the unity.


Foundation of the university of Cracow.


Union of Poland and Lithuania under the dynasty of Jagellons.


The Jagellons beat the Teutonic knights in Grunwald.


The dynasty of Jagellons dominates Central Europe and achieves the modernization of its State; "Golden Age " for sciences and arts, diversity and religious tolerance.


Thanks to the territorial expansions from the Baltic to the Black sea, the apogee is reached under the reign of Sigismond II Auguste, whose succession is ensured by a "free election".


Transfer of the capital city from Cracow to Warsaw by the Swedish prince Sigismond III Vasa.



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